Social Studies 10

Urban Land Use Models

Land Use Models for MEDCs: Burgess and Hoyt

1. “Factories/Industry” is also known as “Wholesale Light Manufacturing”. 

2. An additional “ring” can be added around the models above, called a “Commuter Zone”.

3. Describe the major differences between the Burgess and Hoyt models.

The two models are shaped differently. The Burgess model is more simple, with the land use represented in concentric rings. In the Hoyt model, the zones expand outward, and it is not as even. For both models, the Central Business Distric (CBD) is in the center.

4. Use Wikipedia to research the background to the Burgess Model (Who created it? When? Based upon?).

  • one of the earliest theoretical models to explain urban social structures
  • created by sociologist Ernest Burgess in 1924
  • based on “bid rent curve”: the concentric circles are based on the amount that people will pay for the land
  • has received criticisms from contemporary urban geographers - model only appropriate for cities in U.S. and even there, changes/advancements in transportation + information technology etc., cities no longer organized with clear “zones”

5. Use Wikipedia to research the background to the Hoyt Model (Who created it? When? Based upon?).

  • created by economist Homer Hoyt in 1939
  • Hoyt noticed that cities tended to grow in wedge-shaped patterns or sectors
    • low-income housing borders industry (traffic/noise/pollution makes these areas unattractive)
    • middle and high-income housing located furthest away from industry

6. For each image, decide which land use it represents and then describe the typical characteristics of that land use sector/ring.


7. In which area are you most likely to…

8. Describe the major differences in the structure of the land use between major settlements in a LEDC and a MEDC.

There are many differences in the structure of the land use between LEDC and MEDC. If you compare the models, you can see that the placement of the housing and industry are different. In LEDC, the high-cost housing surrounds the CBD and sticks out on one side, and the industry overlaps the high-cost housing. In MEDC, that would never happen: high-class residents are placed on the very outer part of the ring as they do not wish to live close to the CBD or industries because of traffic, noise, and pollution. In this way, the two models are almost opposite each other.

If you were to compare the land use in Cambodia (LEDC) and England (MEDC), you would find that Cambodia has extremely poor land usage, and even now, not much planning goes on before people build homes/industry/businesses. This shows just how the richer the country, the more well developed land use will be.

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